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Septoria spp.

There are two major Septoria diseases in wheat. These are Septoria tritici blotch, incited by the fungus Septoria tritici (teleomorph: Mycophaerella graminicola), and Septoria nodorum blotch, caused by the fungus Septoria nodorum (teleomorph: Leptosphaeria nodorum). Both diseases cause serious yield losses reported to range from 31 to 53 percent (Eyal, 1981; Babadoost and Herbert, 1984; Polley and Thomas, 1991). Worldwide, more than 50 million ha of wheat, mainly growing in the high-rainfall areas, are affected. During the past 25 years, these diseases have been increasing and have become a major limiting factor to wheat production in certain areas. Under severe epidemics, the kernels of susceptible wheat cultivars are shrivelled and are not fit for milling. Epidemics of Septoria tritici blotch and Septoria nodorum blotch of wheat are associated with favourable weather conditions (frequent rains and moderate temperatures), specific cultural practices, availability of inoculum and the presence of susceptible wheat cultivars (Eyal et al., 1987).


REFERENCES

Babadoost, M. & Herbert, T.T. 1984. Factors affecting infection of wheat seedlings by Septoria nodorum. Phytopathology, 74: 592-595.
Eyal, Z.E. 1981. Integrated control of Septoria diseases of wheat. Plant Dis., 65: 763-768.
Eyal, Z., Sharen, A.L., Prescott, J.M. & van Ginkel, M. 1987. The Septoria diseases of wheat: concepts and methods of disease management. Mexico, DF, CIMMYT.
Polley, R.W. & Thomas, M.R. 1991. Surveys of disease of wheat in England and Wales, 1976-1988. Ann. Appl. Biol., 119: 1-20.