Rhizoctonia solani - Fungal biology
The disease is soilborne. It usually starts at the base of the plant near the water level. Later, the symptoms are observed on the upper leaf sheath and on the leaf blade. The disease usually infects the plant at late tillering or early internode elongation growth stages. Disease may spread from one hill to another through leaf-to-leaf or leaf-to-sheath contacts.
It is commonly assumed that the critical factors for disease development are relative humidity and temperature. Relative humidity ranging from 96 to 100% and temperature ranging from 28-32°C have been reported to favor the disease. High supply of nitrogen fertilizer, and growing of high-yielding, high-tillering, nitrogen-responsive improved varieties favor the development of the disease. High leaf wetness and high frequency of tissue contacts among plants also favor the disease.
The pathogen can be spread through irrigation water and by movement of soil and infected crop residues during land preparation. The young mycelium of the fungus is colorless. With age, it turns yellowish to brown and measures 8-12 µm in diameter with infrequent septations. There are three types of mycelium produced: runner hyphae, lobate hyphae, and monilioid cells. The runner hyphae have thick, parallel walls and spread rapidly over the sheath and leaf surfaces of the rice plant. The runner hyphae give rise to lobate hyphae or appressoria. Monilioid cells are short, broad cells involved in the formation of sclerotia.
Sclerotia consist of compact masses of mycelia. They are irregular, hemispherical, flattened at the bottom, white when young, and turn brown or dark brown when older. Individual sclerotia are 1-6 mm in diameter. They may unite to form a larger mass. Large sclerotia are significantly more virulent than smaller ones. The sclerotia germinate and initiate infection once they get in contact with the rice plant. The fungus penetrates through the cuticle or the stomata slit. Infection pegs are formed from each lobe of the lobate appressorium of infection cushion. The mycelium grows from the outer surface of the sheath going through the sheath edge and finally through the inner surface. Primary lesions are formed while the mycelium grows rapidly on the surface of the plant tissue and inside its tissue. It proceeds upwards and laterally to initiate formation of the secondary lesions. The disease starts during the maximum growth stage of the rice crop. Under favorable conditions, the disease increases as the plant grows older. The damage caused by the disease depends on the infection of the plants at plant growth stages.